1) When it comes to various safety issues, which approach is more suitable to apply, between Absolutism and Utilitarianism?
Notes for Question 1Absolutism – There are some basic rules of Morality which override considerations of consequences. Absolutism is actually arguing a completely different thing, which is there are some basic rules of morality or fundamental principles of ethics which override considerations of consequences.
Utilitarianism – is actually one form of consequentialism. It is under the category of consequentialism, which wassuggested by Jeremy Bentham we need to bringthe greatest happiness of the greatest number of people.That’s what is ethical. So he defines the right action in terms of maximizingthe total sum of happiness
2) Is saving a life one of those fundamental principles, fundamental rules of morality?
3) Is it fair to spend billions of dollars to make marginal improvements of safety, just to save a few number of people
4) Any thoughts on the current calculation of Value of Statistical Life (VSL)?
Notes for Question 3
The UK uses this term, Value of Preventing a Fatality. In the US, we use VSL, which is Value of a Statistical Life. So it’s basically the same thing. It’s a value of a life to be used to make a safety-related decision. In 2016 figure, the VPF in the UK is 1.83 million pounds. That is approximately $2.4 million US the Environmental Protection Agency, has the highest VSL, which is about $10 million. The VPF or VSL is not actually a value of a specific individual, but it’s calculated by this hypothetical situation that how much do we do to reduce the small risks for a large group of people considering the probability of the risk? So it’s actually a statistical number, the value of saving a statistical life.
5) How can we measure a value a human life more accurately?
6) Any thoughts on the issue of safety and organ transplantation/ donation?]
Notes for Question 4
Touch on• Concerns over Directed donation to Loved Ones
•Concerns over Directed Donation To a Stranger
• Problems of Self-Regulation</o:p>
• Ethical issues on Organ Allocation
7) What are your thoughts on organ allocation decisions and principles?