In our discussion of expert systems (ESs) in Section 10.6.1, wesaw that the increased use of ES technology in professional fieldshas generated some ethical and social concerns. Some ethicalcontroversies surrounding ES have to do with critical decisions,including life and death decisions; for example, should “expertdoctors” be allowed to make decisions that could directly result inthe death of, or cause serious harm to, a patient? If so, who isultimately responsible for the ES’s decision? Is the hospital thatowns the particular ES responsible? Should the knowl- edge engineerwho designed the ES be held responsible? Or is the ES itselfresponsible? In answering these questions, you may want to consultrelevant sections of Chapter 4, where we discussed responsibilityfor software-related accidents such as the case involving thetherac 25 system. this is on the text book ethics and technology4th edition