Attached are my assignments for this week. Please follow instructions all the way through and give the best work you can. If there are any questions or you cannot open links or .pdf please let me know through email or chat once the bid is accepted. Please ensure you use the coursebook as your primary reference along with any others you may choose. Thank you! 


· Required:

· Cooper, T. L. (2012). The responsible administrator: An approach to ethics for the administrative role (6th ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

· Chapter 9: Applying the Design Approach to Public Administration Ethics

· Chapter 10: Conclusion: Responsible Administration

· Module notes

Module 8: Module Notes: A Design Approach to Ethical Problem-Solving

A primary goal of applying the design approach to ethical decision-making is to push administrators to go beyond merely analyzing an ethical dilemma and choosing the most ethical course of action (Cooper, 2012, p. 254). While these initial steps are obviously essential, when administrators employ a design approach, they also factor in the organization’s structure and culture when choosing the best course of action, and consider possible interventions to improve the ethics of the organization.

Embedded in this approach are the descriptive and prescriptive models Cooper described in Chapter 2. You will also recall from Chapter 2 that part of this process is not linear.


Carefully and systematically define the ethical problem you are facing.


Work through the decision-making model in Chapter 2 to identify the best course of action to address the problem.


Consider organizational factors (i.e., structure and culture) that may encourage or impede the action you are proposing to take.


Consider intervention strategies you might employ to make the organization more supportive of the kind of conduct you have decided is consistent with public administrative ethics.

(Cooper, 2012, pp. 252–253).

Module 8: Module Notes: Steps in the Design Approach to Ethical Problem-Solving

Let us now take a closer look at the four steps involved in this approach to ethical problem solving, and the factors you should consider in each step.

Define the Problem

In defining the ethical problem, be sure to describe it as objectively as possible (Cooper, 2012).

Identify a Course of Action

When identifying the alternatives available for addressing the problem, resist thinking in “either/or” terms and be open to all possibilities before making a final decision (Cooper, 2012).

Consider Organizational Factors

Also, before making a final decision, consider the positives and negatives about the organization’s structure and culture as they relate to the action you are proposing. For instance, is the organization more of a bureaucracy that is resistant to change or often retaliatory toward employees who do not “toe the line”? (Cooper, 2012). On the other hand, a more rigid organization might be rooted in law and support ethical initiatives you seek to implement (Cooper, 2012).

Consider Intervention Strategies

In Chapter 10, Cooper (2012) also emphasizes that a manager should be thinking strategically and employ interventions that will likely result in the desired structural and cultural changes.

In your first discussion board in this module, you will be applying this design approach to an ethical dilemma you have chosen.

Module 8: Module Notes: Connecting the Dots

These module notes tie together several of the concepts you have studied in the course. They are intended to be useful as you write your final paper. You should also review the section called “The Responsible Administrator” on pages 256–259 in the textbook, where Cooper summarizes key points from each chapter.

In the second discussion board for this module, you will provide your own definition of what it means to be a “responsible administrator.” This can be a complex concept to define, due to the many conflicting roles and responsibilities of public administrators.

You will now see the first six items in a checklist of factors that public administrators must consider when they face ethical dilemmas.

Levels of Ethical Reflection

These include the expressive level, moral rules, ethical analysis, and post-ethical level (Chapter 2).

The Context of Administrative Ethics

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This includes the social, cultural, and political framework impacting the organization (Chapter 3).

Tension Between Different Roles

There could be tension between the roles of public administrator and citizen, as well as between the public and personal roles held by the public administrator (Chapter 3).

Objective and Subjective Responsibility

These include conflicts of authority, role conflicts, and conflicts of interest (Chapter 5).

Objective responsibility is the responsibility to someone and for tasks, subordinates, and goals. Subjective responsibility, on the other hand, is our own internal sense of responsibility and beliefs about responsibility (Chapter 4).

Conflicts Between Objective and Subjective Responsibilities

These include conflicts of authority, role conflicts, and conflicts of interest (Chapter 5).

Internal and External Controls

Responsible conduct can be maintained in public organizations using mechanisms to shape the “conduct of members of public organizations toward consistently ethical conduct,” using internal and external controls.

Cooper (2012) describes four “components of responsible conduct” an administrator can use to design an organizational environment that supports ethical conduct: individual attributes, organizational structure, organizational culture, and societal expectations (pp. 165–192; p. 258) (Chapters 6 & 7).

Module 8: Module Notes: Connecting the Dots: Completing the Checklist

Ethical autonomy should be maintained in public organizations to protect against “organizational corruption” (Cooper, 2012, p. 259).

Cooper identifies four means for encouraging autonomy: “(1) The delimitation of commitment to an employing organization and the cultivation of identities that transcend its boundaries, (2) legal and institutional protection for individual rights and conscience, (3) an ethic of awareness, and (4) the cultivation of principled thinking” (p. 259) (Chapter 8).

Maintaining Ethical Autonomy

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Ethical autonomy should be maintained in public organizations to protect against “organizational corruption” (Cooper, 2012, p. 259).

Cooper identifies four means for encouraging autonomy: “(1) The delimitation of commitment to an employing organization and the cultivation of identities that transcend its boundaries, (2) legal and institutional protection for individual rights and conscience, (3) an ethic of awareness, and (4) the cultivation of principled thinking” (p. 259) (Chapter 8).

Design Approach for Ethical Decision-Making

The design approach for ethical decision-making could be applied at both the grand scale (e.g., Challenger or Columbia disasters) and for small, everyday occurrences (Chapter 9).

Tension Between Different Roles

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Leadership theories (transformational; transactional; servant; and laissez-faire) could be applied (from Module 4 readings).

Administration in the 21st Century

Specific considerations need to be made when leading diverse teams and public administration in the 21st century (e.g., use of social media) (Lean In and Modules 5 and 7).


Sandberg, S. (2013). Lean in: Women, work, and the will to lead (1st ed.). New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf.


M8D1: Design Approach to Ethical Decision-Making

As Cooper (2012) indicates, the goal for public administrators is for a formal ethical decision-making process to become more of an “intuitive decision-making skill” (p. 37). Applying this model repeatedly to different scenarios will help you develop this skill.

Respond to the following:

· Using a real-world ethical dilemma, summarize how you would apply each step of the design approach in responding to that ethical dilemma.

· Describe which step of the model you believe will be the most difficult for you to apply in the field and why.

Post your primary response (approximately 500 words)

M8D2: The Responsible Administrator

For this discussion, reflect on the ethics and leadership concepts you have studied during the course. Consider how you would describe what it means to be a “responsible administrator” and how you believe leadership styles factor into being a responsible administrator.

Respond to the following:

· Summarize what it means to you to be a “responsible administrator.”

· Describe how your leadership style factors into being a responsible administrator.

· Select one practical ethical or leadership aspect you studied during the course and describe how you will implement it in your current or desired role.

Post your primary response (approximately 500 words) 

M8A1: Final Paper–Applying Ethical Decision-Making Models & Leading Diverse Teams

In this final paper you will “connect the dots” and apply the design approach to public administration ethics, while also analyzing how your leadership style impacts your approach to resolving ethical dilemmas.

In this final paper, you will integrate theory and practice by applying the decision-making approach to resolving an ethical dilemma, while being mindful of your personal leadership style. You will also reflect on how you would incorporate effective ways to work with diverse teams and highlight any “21st Century” challenges for public administrators, such as the use of technology, social media, and multi-generational workforces.

Your paper should be 7–8 pages and should reference at least six (6) scholarly sources beyond the textbook or other assigned readings. Refer to the grading rubric for the exact requirements.

For your paper, you will use a real-world ethical dilemma at a public organization with which you are familiar (or by researching or creating one for use in this paper) to address the following:

· Describe the incident and ethical dilemma at issue and identify what conflicts (as described by Cooper) are involved.

· Apply the design approach to this ethical dilemma.

· Discuss how you would apply any mechanisms to elevate the ethical environment at this organization.

· Assume your supervisor has asked you to do something unethical as it relates to the ethical dilemma. Describe how you would maintain ethical autonomy despite this.

· Describe your leadership style and explain how it would impact your approach to resolving this ethical dilemma and your ability to effectively lead a diverse team.

· Describe how you will overcome any 21st century challenges as a public administrator.

In crafting your content, Cooper’s summary on pp. 256–259 in the textbook and the Module Notes should prove helpful.