ETHICS AND LEADERSHIP

Attached are my assignments for this week. Please follow instructions all the way through and give the best work you can. If there are any questions or you cannot open links or .pdf please let me know through email or chat once the bid is accepted. Please ensure you use the coursebook as your primary reference along with any others you may choose. Thank you! 

MPA506

Read:

· Required

· Cooper, T. L. (2012). The responsible administrator: An approach to ethics for the administrative role (6th ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

· Chapter 6: Maintaining Responsible Conduct in Public Organizations: Two Approaches

· Chapter 7: Integrating Ethics with Organizational Norms and Structures

· Module notes

· Article from the Excelsior College Library (ECL):

· Cavico, F. J., & Mujtaba, B. G. (2011). Discrimination and the aging American workforce: Recommendations and strategies for management (Links to an external site.). SAM Advanced Management Journal, 76(4), pp. 15–26. Retrieved from http://vlib .excelsior.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=71970662&site=eds-live&scope=site

· Article:

· Tolbize, A. (2008, August 16). Generational differences in the workplace [PDF, File Size 1.0MB]. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota.

· Legal cases:

· Gomez-Perez v. Potter, 553 U.S. 474 (Links to an external site.) (2008). Retrieved from http://www-lexisnexis-com.vlib.excelsior.edu/lnacui2api/api/version1 /getDocCui?oc=00240&hnsd=f&hgn=t&lni=4SM1-7WB0-TXFX-12WG&hns=t&perma=true&hv=t&hl=t&csi=6496&secondRedirectIndicator=true

· Smith v. City of Jackson, Mississippi, 544 U.S. 228 (Links to an external site.) (2005). Retrieved from http://www-lexisnexis-com.vlib.excelsior.edu/lnacui2api/api/version1/getDocCui?lni=4FTW-Y090-004C-100H&csi=6496&hl=t&hv=t&hnsd=f&hns=t& hgn=t&oc=00240&perma=true

Module 6: Module Notes: Managing Organizational Ethics

The idea of managing organizational ethics has only been around for about 35 years (Cooper, 2012). Cooper (2012) cites Wittmer (1996), who defines an organization’s ethical climate as “the shared perceptions of the ethical aspects of an organization’s culture” (p. 560). Researchers Ford and Richardson (1994) built on Wittmer’s work and concluded from empirical studies that “the more ethical the climate and culture of an organization is, the more ethical an individual’s ethical beliefs and decision behavior will be. The strength of this influence may be moderated by the structure and design of some organizations” (p. 217). In short, Cooper argues that we need to link organizational structure and culture in a way that also incorporates the design of the organization as a whole. He also speaks of individual and management level correlation as far as managing organization ethics are concerned. Let’s go through this.

References

· Cooper, T. L. (2012). The responsible administrator: An approach to ethics for the administrative role (6th ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

· Ford, R. C., & Richardson, W. D. (1994, March). Ethical decision making: A review of the empirical literature (Links to an external site.). Journal of Business Ethics13(3), pp. 205–221. Retrieved from http://vlib.excelsior.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=12134790&site=eds-live&scope=site

· Wittmer, D., & Coursey, D. (1996, October). Ethical work climates: Comparing top managers in public and private organizations (Links to an external site.). Journal of Public Administration Research & Theory, 6(4), p. 559. Retrieved from http://vlib.excelsior.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=9611143211&site=eds-live&scope=site

Correlation

Cooper (2012) summarizes the literature as indicating a high correlation between individual employees’ ethical beliefs and decision-making behavior with that of top management’s beliefs as shown through word and deeds. Furthermore, employees’ decision-making will become more congruent with top management’s beliefs as management increases its rewards to employees for compliance with ethical decision-making (Cooper, 2012, citing Ford and Richardson, 1994). In sum, “the conduct of leaders, not just their words, is crucial,” and employees take their “moral cues” from organizational leaders (Cooper, 2012, p. 186). Top management who act consistently in accordance with their espoused values can create positive organizational norms, trust in leadership, and similar ethical behavior by their employees (Cooper, 2012). Making exceptions for your actions or overlooking unethical behavior of some subordinates while encouraging ethical conduct with your words will show your subordinates that you do not actually value ethical conduct (Cooper, 2012). What message will you send your employees about ethical behavior and decision-making? What ethical culture will you create and how will you maintain it? You will explore these questions throughout Module 6.

Module 6: Module Notes: Societal Expectations & Avoiding Age Discrimination

In Chapter 7, Cooper discusses four major components of responsible conduct for public administrators. These components are individual attributes, organizational culture, organizational structure, and societal expectations. Cooper also asserts that these are the key elements for designing an “environment supportive of ethical conduct” (p. 165). Let’s cover societal expectations and how to avoid age discrimination.

Reference

Cooper, T. L. (2012). The responsible administrator: An approach to ethics for the administrative role (6th ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Societal Expectations

Societal expectations focus on what society expects of its public servants. Societal expectations can be expressed in two key ways—through public participation and through laws and policies. There are seemingly countless laws that a public organization can be subject to. However, in keeping the focus on leading diverse teams, you will examine age discrimination here.

In addition to Title VII that was covered in Module 5, another employment law impacting employers of virtually all sizes is the Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA). To help avoid liability under the ADEA, public administrators should address any ageism that might be occurring in their organizations, particularly given today’s multi-generational workforce. Much more detail about the ADEA is provided in the article by Cavico and Mujtaba and in the cases (Gomez-Perez and Smith v. City of Jackson, Mississippi) assigned for this module, but a summary of the basics is included here.

References

· Cavico, F. J., & Mujtaba, B. G. (2011). Discrimination and the aging American workforce: Recommendations and strategies for management (Links to an external site.). SAM Advanced Management Journal, 76(4), pp. 15–26. Retrieved from http://vlib.excelsior.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=71970662&site=eds-live&scope=site

· Gomez-Perez v. Potter, 553 U.S. 474 (Links to an external site.) (2008). Retrieved from http://www-lexisnexis-com.vlib.excelsior.edu/lnacui2api/api/version1/getDocCui?oc=00240&hnsd=f&hgn=t&lni=4SM1-7WB0-TXFX-12WG&hns=t&perma=true&hv=t&hl=t&csi=6496&secondRedirectIndicator=true

· Smith v. City of Jackson, Mississippi, 544 U.S. 228 (Links to an external site.) (2005). Retrieved from http://www-lexisnexis-com.vlib.excelsior.edu/lnacui2api/api/version1/getDocCui?lni=4FTW-Y090-004C-100H&csi=6496&hl=t&hv=t&hnsd=f&hns=t&hgn=t&oc=00240&perma=true

Protection against Age Discrimination

The ADEA protects workers who are 40 years and older from discrimination and harassment on the basis of age. Like Title VII, the ADEA is enforced by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC). Here are some ways workers can get protection:

Employees or applicants can make a case for age discrimination if they are 40 years or older and can show that the employer took an adverse action (like firing, demoting, failing to hire or promote) against them based on their age that they were otherwise qualified for the position, and that they were treated less favorably than younger employees or applicants.

Employees or applicants can make a case for age discrimination if they are 40 years or older and can show that the employer took an adverse action (like firing, demoting, failing to hire or promote) against them based on their age that they were otherwise qualified for the position, and that they were treated less favorably than younger employees or applicants.Employees can build their case by showing an organizational culture of ageist slurs or jokes, or with any direct evidence indicating, for example, that an organization is trying to phase out older workers or make workplace decisions on the basis of age. However, a harassment claim must be based on more than mere isolated age-based remarks.

Another way an employee can show age discrimination is if an employment practice has a disparate impact on an employee 40 years or older that the employer cannot justify based on business necessity.

A separate claim of hostile work environment (in other words, harassment on the basis of age) could also be made by an employee if ageist comments and behavior are part of the organizational culture.

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Public administrators should be mindful of societal expectations in the form of laws and regulations, of which the ADEA is an example. Maintaining an ethical culture includes a workplace free from discrimination and harassment that focuses on the organization’s purpose in serving the public.

ASSIGNMENTS:

M6D1: Leading Multi-Generational Teams

We have more generations working simultaneously than ever before. These generations include the Traditionals/Greatest Generation, Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y/Millennials. They can impact the workplace in myriad ways, including:

· Generation-based stereotypes.

· Concerns about age-based discrimination or harassment.

· Managers having to navigate working with subordinates who sometimes have vast differences in work styles, attitudes toward work, motivating factors, degrees of loyalty to their employer, preferred leadership styles, attitudes toward authority, attitudes toward work/life balance, and definitions of success in the workplace.

The public sector, from public universities to government agencies and non-profit organizations, should be mindful of any attempts to “phase out” older workers on an ethical front as well as a legal front. For example, the Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) applies to all public sector organizations employing 20 or more employees. State or local laws could apply to smaller organizations.

Read the following:

· Cavico, F. J., & Mujtaba, B. G. (2011). Discrimination and the aging American workforce: Recommendations and strategies for management (Links to an external site.). SAM Advanced Management Journal, 76(4), pp. 15–26. Retrieved from http://vlib.excelsior.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=71970662&site=eds-live&scope=site

· Gomez-Perez v. Potter, 553 U.S. 474 (Links to an external site.) (2008). Retrieved from http://www-lexisnexis-com.vlib.excelsior.edu/lnacui2api/api/version1/getDocCui?oc=00240&hnsd=f&hgn=t&lni=4SM1-7WB0-TXFX-12WG&hns=t&perma=true&hv=t&hl=t&csi=6496&secondRedirectIndicator=true

· Smith v. City of Jackson, Mississippi, 544 U.S. 228 (Links to an external site.) (2005). Retrieved from http://www.lexisnexis.com.vlib.excelsior.edu/lnacui2api/api/version1/getDocCui?lni=4FTW-Y090-004C-100H&csi=6496&hl=t&hv=t&hnsd=f&hns=t&hgn=t&oc=00240&perma=true

· Tolbize, A. (2008, August 16).  Generational differences in the workplace  [PDF, File Size 1MB]. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota.

Respond to the following:

· In your current or desired position, describe the age range of your organization’s workforce and any issues that you have seen arise because of generational differences. Be specific.

· What generational differences do you anticipate having to navigate as a public administrator?

· How will you successfully navigate these, including avoiding any legal pitfalls for your organization?

Post your primary response (approximately 500 words).

M6D2: Do as I Say Not as I Do

Cooper (2012) argues in favor of the importance of leaders’ conduct matching their words in order to maintain an ethical organizational culture. For this discussion, you will research a public, non-profit, or government organization that has faced recent high-profile scrutiny for unethical behavior.

Organization leaders with a “do as I say not as I do” approach to ethical leadership can sabotage an otherwise ethical workplace. For this discussion, select a government or public organization that has experienced relatively recent high-profile scrutiny, e.g., the VA, the Secret Service, and Abu Ghraib.

Respond to the following:

· Briefly summarize the facts of 1–2 incidents illustrating unethical behavior that occurred in the organization.

· Explain what you believe led to the unethical behavior by the employees.

· Summarize how, based on your research, the supervisors’ actions arguably contributed to this unethical behavior.

Post your primary response (approximately 500 words). 

M6A1: Case Study #3—Hurricane Katrina

In August 2005, one of the deadliest hurricanes in the U.S. history devastated New Orleans, Louisiana. Numerous federal, state, and local agencies and public administrators were involved in the disaster response (such as the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), the Department of Homeland Security, and local agencies, like the New Orleans Police Department). The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers was blamed for the levees that failed and the flooding that killed hundreds.

For this case study, you will select and research one of the federal, state, or local agencies that responded ineffectively to Katrina, and in a 2–3 page paper, examine the agency’s incompetence as a matter of ethics. First, provide an overview of the role the organization played in responding to Hurricane Katrina, and second, discuss and analyze the ways in which this organization’s response was incompetent. Further, analyze the extent to which incompetence on the part of the individual administrators and at the organizational level is an ethical issue.